The pancreas produces a hormone known as insulin that controls blood glucose level. When insulin production is insufficient or when insulin does not function properly, glucose cannot be converted into energy we need. This results in increased blood glucose level and the extra glucose will be excreted in urine, a condition known as diabetes mellitus (or diabetes in short).
1. Type I diabetes mellitus
This condition is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which damaged insulin producing cells of the pancreas render it unable to produce insulin. This type of diabetes is related to hereditary factors, disorders of the immune system or environmental factors.
2. Type II diabetes mellitus
This condition is also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. This is the commonest type of diabetes in which insulin does not function properly despite the normal or relatively slightly lowered level. This type of diabetes mellitus is due to the resistance to insulin inside the body. It is also related to hereditary factors, unhealthy eating habits, obesity or lack of physical activity.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease. In fact, many diabetic patients, especially those at the early stage of disease, do not have symptoms. Please seek medical advice if you are in doubt about your health.