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20 July 2016
Ebola Virus Disease  

The Ebola virus disease (EVD) is caused by infection with Ebola virus. The incubation period ranges from 2 to 21 days. Patients may have sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding. EVD in humans has an average case fatality rate of around 50% (varied from 25% to 90% from previous outbreaks).

Ebola virus is transmitted from infected animals to humans. It then spreads through human-to-human transmission, with infection resulting from direct contact through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and indirect contact with environments contaminated with such fluids.

There is currently no licensed vaccine for EVD. To prevent the disease, it is important for travellers to observe the following:

Ebola virus disease

Prevention of Ebola virus disease
  • Observe good personal and environmental hygiene, always remember to use liquid soap or alcohol-based hand rub to clean your hands before touching the eyes, nose and mouth
  • Avoid close contact with feverish or ill persons, and avoid contact with blood or bodily fluids of patients, including items which may have come in contact with an infected person's blood or bodily fluids
  • Avoid contact with animals
  • Cook food thoroughly before consumption


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