Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Poliomyelitis can all be effectively prevented by immunisation.
(I) Who should get this immunisation?
According to the Hong Kong Childhood Immunisation Programme, the 3-dose primary series of immunisation against the above diseases should be completed in the first year of life. Three booster doses should be given at 1½ years of age, primary 1 and primary 6 in order to maintain long-lasting protection.
(II) Children with the following conditions should not receive DTaP-IPV
- Anaphylactic reaction to any of the vaccine components or following a previous dose of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis or poliomyelitis vaccine.
- Encephalopathy not due to an identifiable cause occurring within 7 days following a previous dose of DTaP-IPV or a pertussis-containing vaccine.
- Anaphylactic reaction to Glutaraldehyde, Neomycin, Streptomycin or Polymyxin B
(III) Points to note before immunisation
Student with a mild cold or cough on the day of vaccination can receive the vaccine. However, it should be postponed until recovery if the student has a fever.
Parents should consult their family doctors beforehand if the students have the following conditions:
- the occurrence of the following after a previous pertussis-containing vaccine :
- within 48 hours of immunisation:
- temperature above 40.5℃ (105℉) with no other identifiable causes
- collapse or shock-like state (hypotonic hyporesponsive episode)
- persistent crying lasting for 3 hours or more
- convulsions occurring within 3 days after immunisation
- history of Guillain-Barré Syndrome occurring within 6 weeks after a tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine
- known or suspected neurologic condition (e.g. progressive encephalopathy, uncontrolled epilepsy, etc.)
- under treatment that will weaken immunity, such as steroid, irradiation or cytotoxic drugs
- bleeding tendency.
(IV) Possible reactions after immunisation
Most children do not have serious reactions after receiving DTaP-IPV. Some children may have the following adverse events after immunisation :
- Mild and short lasting side effects, including irritability, tiredness, loss of appetite, vomiting
- If there is any pain, redness or swelling at the injection site, parents may apply cold compress to relieve the symptoms.
- If a fever occurs, parents may provide the child with antipyretic medication to relieve the symptoms.
- Parents should bring their children to hospitals for treatment immediately if the following conditions occur :
- less frequently occur conditions - persistent crying lasting for 3 hours or more, febrile seizures or shock-like state (hypotonic hyporesponsive episode)
- rarely occur conditions - transient benign swelling of the entire upper arm after immunisation
- extremely rare conditions - breathing difficulty or coma soon after immunisation