The Ebola virus disease (EVD) is caused by infection with Ebola virus. The incubation period ranges from 2 to 21 days. Patients may have sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding. EVD in humans has an average case fatality rate of around 50% (varied from 25% to 90% from previous outbreaks).
Ebola virus is transmitted from infected animals to humans. It then spreads through human-to-human transmission, with infection resulting from direct contact through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and indirect contact with environments contaminated with such fluids. Sexual transmission has also been reported.
There is no licensed vaccine to prevent EVD yet. To prevent the infection, it is important for travellers to observe the following: